Punjab is the most populous, fertile, and prosperous province of Pakistan. It is the second-largest province covering 205,344 km2 (79,284 sq mi) and accounting for 56% of the entire population. Punjab is the land of Punjabis and several other ethnic groups speaking Punjabi and Saraiki as major languages along with several dialects. Urdu is the national language and understood widely while English is the official language. Lahore is the capital city and a major economic and cosmopolitan centre housing all the historic and modern attractions.
Geographically, Punjab province is bordered by Sindh province to the south, Baluchistan to its south-west, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to the northwest, and the capital city of Islamabad and Azad Kashmir to the north. The entire eastern side shares border with the Indian states of Punjab, Rajasthan, and the Indian-administered territory of Jammu and Kashmir.
The Punjab province of Pakistan has an alluring history. It was known to the ancient Greeks as Pentapotamia; the Sanskrit name was Panchanada, as mentioned in the Ramayana and Mahabharata; and the Persians, after the Muslim conquests, named it as “Punjab”. All aforesaid terms refer to as “the Land of the five rivers” – Punjab (Punj-aab) or Punj (five) ab (water) – Jehlum, Chenab, Ravi, Satlej, and Indus.
The province has traditionally been crossroads of Mughal Highway, the Grand Trunk (GT) Road, from Central Asia to the Indian Subcontinent. Historically Punjab has been home to various civilizations and dynasties including the Indus Valley Civilization, Aryans, Kushans, Scythians, Greeks, Persians, Arabs, Turks, Ghaznavids, Timurids, Afghans, Mughals, Sikhs, and the British just before the creation of Pakistan.
Punjab houses innumerable tourist attractions including historic monuments, archaeological sites, cultural heritage and recreational hotspots. Major tourist attractions include Murree Hills, archaeological ruins in Taxila & Harrapa; the Salt mines; Ketas Raj Fort; Rohtas Fort; the glorious Mughal architecture; the splendid Sikh heritage, the Gothic British heritage, and imposing monuments in South Punjab including robust forts, impressive palaces, colourful mausoleums, and dedicated shrines boasting for their historic significance, architectural dexterity and magnificent artwork.
The city is connected by major highways and has an international airport called Allama Iqbal International airport beside connected by Pakistan Railways service. The nearest international border is Wagah Border with India.